Scientists told about the secrets of the Mariana Trench
Geologists have been arguing for many years about how much water gets into the bowels of the earth along with the “sinking bark.” This question was answered by a detailed study of the Mariana Trench. This oceanic trench is a subduction zone, where one lithospheric plate as if “dives” under another.
American scientists have found that the “sinking” layer goes deeper into the crust for several tens of kilometers, while maintaining the composition and structure. This means that much more sea water enters the mantle along with the rock. According to the estimates of researchers, almost 80 million tons of water has flowed through the Mariana Trench under the planetary crust over the last million years – four times more than according to preliminary forecasts.
The Mariana Trench, the underwater trench in the western Pacific Ocean is the deepest place on earth. The depth of its lowest point, the Challenger Void, is 10,994 meters. Much of what is happening there has yet to be revealed to man – the tremendous depth, pressure and darkness make research extremely difficult.
Many people think that the Challenger Abyss is named after a professor from Arthur Conan Doyle’s book “The Lost World”. In fact, the Challenger II is the ship from which it was first possible to measure it with an echo sounder. In 1951, the largest depth at that time was recorded – 10,899 meters.
The maximum depth of the Mariana Trench is not final: as of 2011, it is 10,994 meters ± 40 meters. And this may well not be the final result.
At the bottom of the Mariana Trench people visited. Of course, in special equipment. For the first time – in 1963. And in 2012 – James Cameron.
The highest point of the Earth – Mount Everest (Chomolungma) – rises above sea level at 8848 meters. If we could lower it to the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the deepest place, there would be more than two kilometers of water above its top.
There is its own volcano, which created an amazing rarity: a lake of molten sulfur. And hydrothermal springs, “black smokers”, the water in which is very hot: measurements showed 450 degrees. It does not boil there because of the enormous pressure. Because of this, unlike many deep-water places, the water in the Mariana Trench is generally not too cold: from 1 to 4 degrees.
A photograph of the Mariana Trench in the form of a beautiful flat hole – in fact, it is a large underwater cave located in Central America near Belize.
The pressure at the bottom is greater than at the surface — about a thousand one hundred times. But, as you know, “life is everywhere,” and even these frightening depths are no exception. Mollusks, deep-sea organisms, and the most unusual and famous “tenants” – xenofiofory. They are remarkable not so much for their poisonousness as for the size that is enormous for such creatures. 10 centimeters across – and all this is one single cell!
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